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Affect and Cognition Articles

What and where are the primary affects? Some evidence for a theory

SS Tomkins, R MC Carter – Perceptual and motor skills, 1964 – amsciepub.com

We have argued (Tomkins, 1962) that affective responses are the primary motives of human beings. We have further assumned that affects are primarily facial behaviors and secondarily outer skeletal and inner visceral behavior. When we become aware of these 

Cited by 276


Facial affect scoring technique: A first validity study

P Ekman, WV Friesen, SS Tomkins – Semiotica, 1971 – degruyter.com

Our first decision was to develop FAST in terms of emotion categories (happiness, anger, surprise, etc.) rather than emotion dimensions (pleasantness-unpleasantness, active-passive, etc.). The decision was based on three considerations. First, more past work 

Cited by 260


Affect, cognition, and personality: empirical studies.

SS Tomkins, CE Izard – 1965 – psycnet.apa.org

Abstract: A broad range of studies of determinants as well as expression of affect are presented, usually accompanied by theoretical contributions. Harvard Book List (edited) 1971# 395 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Cited by 102


The role of facial response in the experience of emotion: A reply to Tourangeau and Ellsworth.

SS Tomkins – 1981 – psycnet.apa.org

Abstract: Replies to R. Tourangeau and PC Ellsworth (see record 1981-00499-001), who tested a hypothesis about the role of voluntarily innervated facial responses in the experience of emotion and disconfirmed that hypothesis. The present author’s theory 

Cited by 57


Affects: The Primary Motives of Man

SS Tomkins – Humanitas, 1968 – psycnet.apa.org

Abstract: The affects are our primary motives and are primarily facial responses.  There are 8 innate affects: the positive ones are interest or excitement, enjoyment or joy, surprise or startle.  The negative ones are distress or anguish, fear or terror, shame or humiliation, contempt or disgust, and anger or rage.  All 8 are discussed.

Cited by 15


Primary site of the affects: The face

SS Tomkins – 1962 – psycnet.apa.org

Abstract: The low visibility of the affects and the difficulties to be encountered in attempting to identify the primary affects have already been described. Yet our task is not as difficult as it might otherwise have been, for the primary affects, before the transformations due to 

Cited by 4


On relations among perceptual and cognitive measures of information processing

P Suedfeld, SS Tomkins, WH Tucker – Perception & psychophysics, 1969 – Springer

Abstract: Tests of visual information processing and verbal information processing were administered to 178 Ss. Intercorrelations showed low positive relationships between two sets of two cognitive measures each, the Sentence Completion Test (Schroder, Driver, & 

Cited by 12



SS Tomkins – 1987 – psycnet.apa.org

Abstract: General theory of affect and the specific theory for shame/review his [the author’s] position in terms of our current interest in the superego and the emotions called shame and guilt (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Cited by 164