- Understand how gradients (changes in rate of stimulation) and density (level of stimulation) trigger specific affects.
- Be able to use this knowledge to understand ways in which negative affect can be modified.
AIC I-II, “The Innate Determinants of Affect,” Chapter 8; SuperVolume I, pp. 135-149.
Nathanson S&P, “The Affect System,” Chapter 2, pp. 65-72.
SAT, Donald L. Nathanson, “Stimulus Density,” March 28, 1998.
Nathanson S&P, “What Is Emotion?” Chapter 1, pp. 35-38.
TT, Melvyn A. Hill, “A Panic Disorder Parable,” October 12, 1997.
TT, Robert Most, “Re: A Panic Disorder Parable: Hardware and Software Glitches and Treatment,” October 16, 1997.
- What is an affect?
- What are the innate determinants of affect?
- Do drives cause emotional reactions?
- What is the relationship between drive and affect?
- How do gradients and density help us understand affect?
- Describe Tomkins’s density theory of innate activators of affect.
- Draw the patterns for the innate activator for Enjoyment-Joy and Interest-Excitement.
- Draw the pattern for the innate activator for surprise-startle.
- Draw the patterns for the innate activators for Distress-Anguish, Anger-Rage, and Fear-Terror.
- Discuss some ways that panic or fear might be handled in psychotherapy using what you have learned about density, shame, and “hardware” vs. “software.”